## 20 May 2011

### Automatic forcing of promises in Klink

As I was coding EMSIP in Kernel, I realized that I was spending entirely too much time and testing to manage the forcing of promises.

I needed to use promises. In particular, some sexps had to have the capability of operating on what followed them, if only to quote the next sexp. But I couldn't expect every item to read its tail before operating. That would make me always read an entire list before acting. This isn't just inefficient, it is inconsistent with the design as an object port, from which objects can be extracted one by one.

So what I have now is automatic forcing of promises. This occurs in two destructuring situations. I've coded one, and I'm about to code the other.

### Operatives' typespecs

Background: For a while now, Klink has been checking types before it calls any built-in operative. This operation can check an argobject piece by piece against a typespec piece by piece. That destructures it treewise to arguments that fill an array that is exactly the arguments for to the C call. It's very satisfactory.

Now when an argobject doesn't match a typespec, but the argobject is a promise, the destructure operation arranges for the promise to be forced. After that comes the tricky part. While the destructuring was all in C, it could just return, having filled the target array. But now it has to also reschedule another version of itself, possibly nested, and reschedule the C operation it was working towards.

All fairly tricky, but by using the chain combiners and their support, and by passing destructure suitable arguments, I was able to make it work.

### Defining

As in $let' or $define!'. I'm about to code this part. I expect it to be along similar lines to the above, but simpler (famous last words).

## Status

I haven't pushed this branch to the repo yet because I've written only one of the two parts, the destructuring. That part passes the entire test suite.

I haven't yet tried it with EMSIP to see if it solves the problem.

## Does it lose anything?

ISTM this does not sacrifice anything, other than the {design, coding, testing, debugging} effort I've spent on it.

### Functionality

It subtracts no functionality. force' is still available for those situations when manual control is needed.

### Restraint

The opposite side of functionality. Does this sacrifice the ability to refrain from an action? No. In every circumstance that a promise is forced, the alternative would be an immediate error. There could never have been a capacity to do the same thing except refraining from forcing.

But does it sacrifice the ability to make other code refrain from an action? No, the other code could have just called force' at the same points.

### Exposure

Does this expose whether a promise has been forced? No, not in any way that wasn't already there. Of course one can deduce that a promise has been forced from the fact that an operation has been done that must force that promise. That's always been the case.

### Code size

The init.krn code is actually slightly smaller with this. The C code grew, but largely in a way that it would have had to grow anyways.